Mind Reading on Our Changing World

Radio NZ Our Changing World will feature the science behind Mind Reading tonight at 9pm.

The live MRI analysis event took place in Brain Awareness Week, and featured scientists Associate Professor Brett Cowan and Dr Donna Rose Addis. As part of ‘Mind Reading’ the experts were given the task of detecting the difference between a lie and a memory using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Could they do it? Find out more on Radio NZ tonight!

http://www.radionz.co.nz/national/programmes/ourchangingworld

Did you miss any part of Brain Awareness Week?

All the lecture videos and photos are now online! See our website: www.cbr.auckland.ac.nz/brainweek

You can find lecture notes and videos from Brain Day here.

The theme for Auckland Brain Day 2012 was ‘brain fitness’. It featured an exciting range of lectures, discussions and workshops to keep your brain in top condition!

Leading scientists and clinicians from the Centre for Brain Research presented the latest information on topical brain issues. Discussions with community experts provided the opportunity to discover practical tips on living with brain disorders. Meanwhile interactive workshops and hands-on demonstrations revealed the wonders of the brain.

As part of the Mind Reading event, Dr Donna Rose Addis and Associate Professor Brett Cowan were asked to spot which pattern of brain activity looked most like a true memory using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans.

The event was organised by the Centre for Brain Research and the Centre for Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CAMRI) at The University of Auckland. Promising to reveal the science of brain imaging, ‘Mind Reading’ offered an entertaining look at the capabilities of brain imaging thanks to MRI technology. View the event online here.

 

Mind Reading event video now online

Mind Reading featured MC Russell Brown, A/P Brett Cowan and Dr Donna Rose Addis.

If you missed this awesome event, you can now view the live brain scan analysis online.

We have four videos showing the different sections of the night:

  • Introduction to MRI
  • Mind Reading in Motion
  • Memorable Experiences
  • Truth or Lie

Let us know what you think and enjoy!

www.cbr.auckland.ac.nz/mindreading

Truth or Lie?

This was the critical question answered in the ‘Mind Reading’ event on Wednesday. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans, Dr Donna Rose Addis and Associate Professor Brett Cowan were asked to spot which pattern of brain activity looked most like a true memory.

The event was organised by the Centre for Brain Research and the Centre for Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CAMRI) at The University of Auckland, as part of Brain Awareness Week. Promising to reveal the science of brain imaging, ‘Mind Reading’ offered an entertaining look at the capabilities of brain imaging thanks to MRI technology.

So could they do it? Well the answer was a hesitant yes! At the live event held at the Auckland Museum Events Centre, MC journalist Russell Brown pushed cognitive neuroscientist Dr Addis to make a choice, and it turned out her pick was indeed the scan taken while participant Reece Roberts was remembering a true experience.

The central premise of the event revolved around psychology student Reece being put through an exciting experience – in this case a whiz around a race track – which he then had to remember. In the alternate scenario, he then had to ‘remember’ an event which never happened. In other words he had to lie and try to fool the scanner.

Memory and imagination actually use overlapping brain regions and so the scans from each scenario looked remarkably similar. The packed out public audience of 400 held their breaths while the choice was made, and finally the correct answer was revealed. It turned out that increased activity in the hippocampus, which organises memory, was the clues which gave the game away for Dr Addis.

So does this mean that MRI scanners could be used for lie detection? Well the answer was still a resounding no. The technology shows increasing promise for understanding human behaviour and thought, but is not reliable when scanning just one individual. This is because scientific experiments are usually conducted with a large group of people and repeated many times so that the responses are averaged out. 

However MRI technology, like the 3T Siemens scanner at CAMRI, is still hugely exciting for the future. With international research revealing that thoughts can be turned into words, and that people in comas still imagine moving, the sci-fi scenario of mind reading isn’t too far away.

Sneak preview of our memorable experience for Mind Reading!

Mind Reading – the memory!

As part of our attempt to mind read, we put our participant Reece Roberts through a memorable experience! Here Reece experiences high speeds in a race car, something he is sure to remember forever. View the You Tube clip.

Our scientists from the Centre for Brain Research then had to use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to see if they could tell the difference between this memory and a lie, using only Reece’s brain scan.

Can they do it? Find out more at www.cbr.auckland.ac.nz/mindreading

Send us your questions for Mind Reading!

Truth or lie? That’s our big question for our Mind Reading event, which we’ll attempt to answer on Wednesday evening.

We’ll use MRI to see if we can tell the difference between imagination and memory. It’s a big task, and one we can’t wait to get the answer to!

But do you have a question of your own? Anything about how MRI works, what it can be used for and what’s the limit of our knowledge right now? Or a question about brain research – what can MRI tell us about the human mind?

It’s up to you, so send us your questions before Wednesday. Email cbr@auckland.ac.nz

You can book tickets for Mind Reading here.

Truth or lie? Can MRI help scientists read our minds?

 It’s the slogan of a new game show on TV3, but can science help us tell the two apart?

This blog was first posted on the Science Media Centre Sciblogs site. By Dr Donna Rose Addis, Centre for Brain Research, University of Auckland

Mind Reading has always been thought of as a superhuman skill, but fMRI technology is bringing us ever closer to this goal. So-called ‘functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging’ tracks blood oxygen levels across the brain, allowing scientists to visualise what brain regions ‘light up’ during different types of cognition. Of course this is an indirect measure, as we assume that the more oxygen a brain area consumes, the more it is doing – as thinking is hungry work!

Nevertheless the advances in functional MRI (fMRI) since the 1990s have been met with great enthusiasm from the scientific community – in the 16 years between 1991 and 2007, over 19,000 peer-reviewed articles reporting on fMRI research were published (Logothetis, 2008). Coupled with the increasing availability of and access to fMRI technology, this method has come to dominate brain research and led to the emergence of a new field: cognitive neuroscience. fMRI studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of every aspect of thought and emotion, from executing physical movements, language and mathematics, to the more complex and (some would argue) uniquely human abilities of remembering, imagining, and understanding the self.

Despite the exciting technological innovations – and the seductive images of brain regions ‘lighting up’ with activity – there are limits to what we can understand about the brain and cognition from brain imaging. The sin of over-interpreting MRI data usually comes about from a logical fallacy called ‘reverse inference’. Essentially, a reverse inference is when one looks at a pattern of brain activity and from that, makes conclusions about what that brain (or its owner) is thinking or feeling. That is, engaging in a form of mind reading.

The reality is though that in a typical fMRI study, we scan 15–30 different participants and then we put together all their brain scans to get an average picture of brain activity during a particular cognitive task. This averaging is important because everyone’s brain is slightly different in its anatomy and its functioning, and we have to cancel out any idiosyncratic fluctuations (or “noise”). So could MRI ever be used to tell what a single person is actually thinking?

Liars Inc.

The most popular use of this skill would be lie detection tests, and that’s not as futuristic as it sounds. In the US, a company called ‘No Lie MRI Inc.’ is already claiming to “provide unbiased methods for the detection of deception and other information stored in the brain”. However these scans inherently focus on one person – the defendant – making it impossible to know if the defendant’s brain activity shows signs of deception or if it just happens that their brain activates differently from the average. Another issue is that fMRI data can be easily corrupted. In order for lie detection scans to work, the experimenter would have to ensure the defendant is compliant and thinking about the episode in question. It would be easy, however, for a defendant to thwart the lie detection process by just thinking about random things and so ‘scrambling’ their brain activity.

So although fMRI is not a mind reading device, I don’t mean to imply that at its current stage of development, brain imaging cannot provide us with any useful information about the brain. MRI has revolutionised our science and significantly expanded our knowledge about the inner workings of the brain. It has sparked new hypotheses and theories that in turn have changed how we think about the mind and brain.

Furthermore, our methods for human brain mapping are advancing all the time. Not to definitively say what someone is thinking, but to infer statistically what they might be thinking. So if the innovation in the last 20 years of brain imaging is anything to go by, before we know it we may well have mind reading apps on our phones, and scanning tests on daytime TV!

You can find out more about ‘Mind Reading’ in a live scan event during Brain Awareness Week. Dr Donna Rose Addis and colleague Associate Professor Brett Cowan will explore the brain’s inner workings, discovering the origins of imagination and memory. Chaired by journalist Russell Brown, the event will feature live analysis of brain scans at Auckland Museum.

The event will also go online on Thursday 15th March for the rest of New Zealand.

When: Wednesday 14 March 7.00 – 8.30pm

Where: Auckland Museum

Tickets: $10 (plus $3 booking fee)

Book online or phone 09 306 7048. For more details, see www.cbr.auckland.ac.nz/mindreading or @TeamMRI